Referencing for students: APA 7th ed. style

Referencing multiple works by the same author with the same publication year

When an author has published more than one cited work in the same year, distinguish each work by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also included in the reference list).

Direct quotation in-text

“the idea was useful…” (Dean, 2017a)

“the other idea was…” (Dean, 2017b)

Paraphrase in-text

According to Dean (2017a), it was found that ...

It is suggested that... (Dean, 2017b).

Reference list

Differentiate by adding a-z in alphabetical order after the year.

References by the same author(s) with the same publication year are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding ‘A’ or ‘The’) that follows the date.

Dean, E. (2017a). Practice nursing: An action plan for a disparate workforce. Nursing Standard, 32(3), 25. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.32.3.25.s24

Dean, E. (2017b). Top nursing universities fall short in new ratings. Nursing Standard, 31(44), 9. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.31.44.9.s8

Referencing works with no author

If citing a source with no author, use the title of the work both in-text and in the reference list.

If the title of the work is italicised in the reference list, italicise the title in-text

If the title is not italicised in the reference list then use double quotation marks in-text, e.g. book titles should be italicised, journal article titles should be enclosed in "double quotation marks".

If the title is long, shorten the title to the first few words.

Direct quotation in-text

Add the title of the work in title case. Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s). If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"Australia is a major provider of international education and training services." (Higher Education in Australia: The Facts, 2004, p. 23)

Paraphrase in-text

Add the title of the work in title case. Include the first few words of the title in italics followed by the year.

Australia has a growing role in the education of international students (Higher Education in Australia: The Facts, 2004).

Reference list

The title moves to the author position in the reference list entry.

Higher education in Australia: the facts. (2004). Business/Higher Education Round Table.

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 2). The Australian. https://www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/editorials/budget-to-link-school-spending-to-outcomes/news-story/b1b98475b68869356cc6540766d6358a

Referencing works with no date

If there is no date available use 'n.d.' (for 'no date') in both the in text citation and the reference list.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and add pages number if they are available.

"events in the late 1950s brought the sufferings of the few into the living rooms of the many" (National Museum Australia, n.d.).

Paraphrase in-text

In the late 1950s, white Australians became more aware of indigenous living conditions reported in the news (National Museum Australia, n.d.).

Reference list

National Museum of Australia. (n.d.). The fight for civil rights. https://indigenousrights.net.au/civil_rights

Referencing works "as cited in" or Secondary source

When you are referring to the ideas or words of an author who has been cited in another author's work. Provide the full reference for the book (or source) that you actually read. This is only recommended when the original source cannot be located.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article.

Intuition is defined as, "knowledge or knowledge structures that predispose individuals to think and act in particular ways without much conscious reflection" (Torff & Sternberg, 2001, as cited in Hernandez-Romero, 2017, p. 134).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Knowledge structures shows that people act in particular ways… (Torff & Sternberg, 2001, as cited in Hernandez-Romero, 2017).

Torff & Sternberg (2001, as cited in Hernandez-Romero, 2017) discuss the idea that people act in a particular ways…

Reference list

Hernández-Romero, L. (2017). Re-evaluating creativity: The individual, society, and education. Palgrave Macmillan.

General rules for the reference list

Useful abbreviations when referencing

Terms commonly used in references are shortened. Some are also used for date and page information for in-text citations.

ca.

circa

&

and

(ed.).

edition

(2nd ed.).

second edition

(Rev. ed.).

revised edition

(Ed.)./(Eds.).

editor/editors

Trans.

translator(s)

et al.

and others

(n.d.).

no date

p./pp.

page/pages

para.

paragraph

(Tech.)

technical report

Vol./Vols.

volume/volumes

Referencing a book with a single author

Direct quotation in-text

Place between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Teachers suggest ways of looking at the new material" (Featherston, 2007, p. 61).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Featherston, 2007).

Featherston (2007) states that...

If multiple narrative citations are repeated within the same paragraph, the year of publication can be omitted.

Featherston also said that...

Reference list

Featherston, T. (2007). Becoming an effective teacher. Thomson Learning.

Referencing a book with two authors

Use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"To enhance practice, we must ..." (Borbasi & Jackson, 2015, p. 354).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s) and also use 'and' rather than the & symbol.

... is demonstrated by the study (Borbasi & Jackson, 2015).

Borbasi and Jackson (2015) demonstrated in the study...

Reference list

Borbasi, S., & Jackson, D. (2015). Navigating the maze of research: Enhancing nursing and midwifery practice (4th ed.). Elsevier.

Referencing a book with three or more authors

Use only the first listed author family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

In a recent study regarding patient care, "marked improvements were crucial..." (Roy et al., 2012, p. 12).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The effectiveness is shown to... (Roy et al., 2012).

Roy et al. (2012) prove its effectiveness ...

Reference list

Include all authors and place an ampersand symbol & before the last author's name.

Roy, D., Baker, W., & Hamilton, A. (2012). Teaching the arts: Early childhood and primary education. Cambridge University Press.

How to reference a book with an edition number

Direct quotation and paraphrasing do not change. Only add the edition information to the reference list entry. If the book is a first edition, or no edition is stated, do not include the edition number.

Reference list

Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (2nd ed.). Society for Research in Higher Education & Open University Press.

Referencing an ebook from an ebook database

Cite ebooks in the same way as print books.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the e-book.

"Effective classroom management ..." (Billings, 2011, p.137).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Sport journalism is ... (Billings, 2011).

Billings (2011) discusses sport journalism…

Reference list

Follow the same rules for citing a book, but provide a DOI or URL if stated. Do not put a full stop after the DOI or URL.

Billings, A. (2011). Sports media: Transformation, integration, consumption. Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203832790

Referencing an edited book / book chapter

An edited book is usually made up of chapters written by different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the specific chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Shirey (2014) states "when under pressure...” (p. 866).

To quote directly from a source, use double quotation marks to enclose quotations in text. Direct quotations must be accurate. If the quotation is less than 40 words, incorporate it into the text with the quotation in double quotation marks.

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

To aid communication... (Shirley, 2014).

Shirley (2014) proves that communication…

Reference list

Editors are listed in first name initial(s) then family name order. The chapter title is not in italics, but the book title is. The pages numbers of the chapter are added in brackets after the book title with edition if applicable.

Shirley, M. (2014). Managing competing priorities. In G. M. Magee (Ed.), Nursing management: Principles and practice (2nd ed., pp. 865-872). Oncology Nursing Society.

Referencing a dictionary or encyclopedia

The same format applies to all reference works including dictionaries, thesauruses, encyclopedias and atlases.

Use organisation or editor of resource in place of author if one isn’t available.

Always use (n.d.) for non-archived (that is, regularly updated) entries online and add the date you retrieved it.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide either the author, company or organisation name and year.

Modernism is "a style and movement in art, architecture and literature popular in the early 20th century" (Oxford University Press, n.d.).

Paraphrase in-text

Include either the author, company or organisation name and year. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name, company or organisation name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name, company or organisation name.

…is described as movement (Wild, 2022)

Wild (2022) definition is…

Reference list

If the publisher is also the author then it doesn't need to be repeated in the publisher position.

Logan, C. (2012). Gothic revival. In P. Goad & J. Willis (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture. Cambridge University Press.

Wild, K. (Ed.). (2022). Modernism. In Oxford dictionary (10th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Oxford University Press. (n.d.). Modernism. In Oxford learner’s dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2022, from https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/modernism?q=modernism

Referencing a translated book

This is for books that have been translated into English.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The third stage on the contrary is characterised by this discovery that names are in ourselves and come from within us" (Piaget, 1929/2007, p. 77).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name, year(s) of publication in brackets (include both the original year of publication, if applicable, as well as the year of publication from the source). Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year(s) of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The study of the first stage reveals... (Piaget, 1929/2007).

Piaget (1929/2007) states that...

Reference list

Include the translator(s) after the title and add the date of original publication in brackets (if applicable) after the publication details.

Piaget, J. (2007).

The child's conception of the world (J. Tomlinson & A. Tomlinson, Trans.). Rowman & Littlefield. (Original work published 1929)

Referencing a paper from published conference proceedings

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the conference proceedings. If there are three or more authors list the first family name followed by et al.

"For the data acquisition, patients were asked to perform 3 deep breath cycles with hands placed on the back of their heads" (Katashev et al., 2015, pp. 63-64).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If there are three or more authors list the first family name followed by et al. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

It is suggested that . . . (Katashev et al., 2015).

Katashev et al. (2015) state that...

Reference list

For proceedings sourced from a print book or e-book, use the same format for a book or book chapter e.g. author(s), year of publication, title of conference paper, editor(s), title of book in italics, page number(s) in brackets, publisher and DOI.

Katashev, A., Romberg, K., Danielsson, A., & Saraste, H. (2015). Application of 3D scanner for estimation of chest movement in scoliotic patients. In H. Mindedal & M. Persson (Eds.). 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering: 16 NBC & 10. MTD 2014 joint conferences (pp. 63-66). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12967-9

Referencing a journal article with a single author

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article.

"Legislative change is often needed to effect practice change". (Crickman, 2017, p. 73)

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies show… (Crickman, 2017)

Crickman (2017) showed that recent studies…

Reference list

You must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number and include the DOI (digital object identifier) at the end of the reference (if one is available).

Crickman, R. (2017). Chemotherapy safe handling: Limiting nursing exposure with a hazardous drug control program. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 21(1), 73–78. https://doi.org/10.1188/17.CJON.73-78

Referencing a journal article with two authors

Use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article.

This results in "patient satisfaction ..." (Yevelson-Shorsher & Bronstein, 2018, p. 30).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s) and also use ‘and’ rather than the & symbol.

... digital literacy (Yevelson-Shorsher & Bronstein, 2018).

Yevelson-Shorcher and Bronstein (2018) take in digital literacy...

Reference list

Yevelson-Shorsher, A., & Bronstein, J. (2018). Three perspectives on information literacy in academia: Talking to librarians, faculty, and students. College & Research Libraries, 79(4), 535-553. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.79.3.535

Referencing a journal article with three to 20 authors

Use only the first listed author family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article.

Studies show that "managing hospitality ..." (Sheen et al., 2020, p.1030).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

When managing ... (Sheen et al., 2020).

Sheen et al. (2020) states that…

Reference list

List all authors (up to 20), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Sheen, J., Graj, E., Dudley, A., Wallace, B., Sutherland, S. W., Kavadas, V., Roberts, R. M., Proeve, M., Littler, S., Clark, G. I., & Dunstan, D. A. (2020). Occupational risks during clinical placement: Key stakeholder perceptions. Australian Psychologist, 55(1), 73–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12403

Referencing a journal article with 21 or more authors

Use only the first listed author family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article.

Research indicated that "lost sense of smell is a factor" (Khan et al., 2017, p. 344).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Khan et al. (2019) used criteria which included...

The criteria included in the study… (Khan et al., 2019)

Reference list

List the first 19 authors followed by three ellipsis points (...) then the last author.

Khan, A., Huynh, T. M. T., Vandeplas, G., Joish, V. N., Mannent, L. P., Tomassen P., van Zele, T., Cardell, L.O., Arebro, J., Olze, H., Forster-Ruhrmann, U., Kowalski, M. L., Olszewska-Ziaber, A., Fokkens, W., van Drunen, C., Mullol, J., Alobid, I., Hellings, P.W., Hox, V., …Bachert, C. (2019). The GALEN rhinosinusitis cohort: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps affects health-related quality of life. Rhinology, 57(5), 343-351. https://doi.org/10.4193/Rhin19.158

Referencing a newspaper article from print

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that...

Reference list

Include the month and day of the article in the year field.

Evans, K. (2015, January 5). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age, 11.

Referencing a newspaper article from a newspaper webpage

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

The officer stated that "the offender ..." (Kolovos, 2022, para. 2).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The project will enable 1000s of jobs to be created… (Kolovos 2022).

Kolovos (2022) states that 1000s of new jobs will be created by the time it opens…

Reference list

Include the month and day of the article in the year field. Include the URL at the end.

Kolovos, B (2022, March 15). Gamechanger: Design unveiled for National Gallery of Victoria’s contemporary art space. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2022/mar/15/gamechanger-design-unveiled-for-national-gallery-of-victorias-contemporary-art-space

General rules for images

When any kind of visual display (other than a table) is reproduced in a work, it should be treated as a figure. This includes photographs, drawings, bar graphs, infographics and other illustrations. The reference details are displayed with the figure and also included in the reference list. APA includes the following within the definition of images and figures:

General rules

Above the figure include:

  1. the figure number (in bold)
  2. a brief title of the image (in italics)

Below the figure place a caption that includes:

  1. a note providing a brief description
  2. if the image is not original work, then source details from where it was derived.

If you plan to publish the work your figure/image appears in, make sure you obtain permission from the copyright holder.

Permission requirements for using images

Students using images in assignments

If you reproduce images in assignments that are submitted as part of a course, you do not need to seek permission from the copyright owner.

Students using images in assignments

If you reproduce images in work that will be published in some form, you will need to seek the permission of the copyright holder. This could include publications such a thesis, journal articles, books or book chapters, but also if used in presentations outside of the university. If images come from an online sources such as Creative Commons, they may also include licensing restrictions that you will need to comply with. A permission statement is then added at the end of the image caption.

Reprinted with permission.

Referencing an image from a book

When you reproduce images from books in your assignment, follow the instructions below.

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  1. Within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference
  2. In the figure layout include figure number, brief title above the image and notes underneath.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number.

As demonstrated in Figure 1, the light fitting... (Mueller, 2009)

Figure 1 illustrates… (Mueller, 2009)

Image layout

For an image from a book include a double-spaced caption with the following elements above the figure: label of figure in bold (e.g. Figure 1) followed by the title of the figure (in italics).

Below the figure include:

Figure 1

Hanging Lamp with Pulley

Note. Hanging lamp with pulley in nickel-plated sheet brass. From Bauhaus Women: Art, Handicraft, Design, by U. Mueller, 2009, Copyright 2009 by Flammarion.

If this image is to be used in a document that will be published, e.g. a thesis, journal article, etc., you need to first seek permission from the copyright owner before including the image. The caption would then need to include a permission statement at the end - Reproduced with permission.

Figure 1

Hanging Lamp with Pulley

Note. Hanging lamp with pulley in nickel-plated sheet brass. From Bauhaus Women: Art, Handicraft, Design, by U. Mueller, 2009, Copyright 2009 by Flammarion. Reproduced with permission.

Reference list

A full citation must be added to the reference list and formatted in the correct style of the original source, i.e. a book.

Mueller, U. (2009). Bauhaus women: Art, handicraft, design. Flammarion.

Referencing an image from a journal article

When you reproduce images from journals articles in your assignment, follow the instructions below.

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  1. Within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference
  2. In the figure layout include figure number, brief title above the image and notes underneath.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number.

As demonstrated in Figure 2, cemetery architecture at that time... (Lintel et al., 2019)

Figure 2 illustrates… (Lintel et al., 2019)

Image layout

For an image from a journal article include a double-spaced caption with the following elements above the figure: label of figure in bold (e.g. Figure 1) followed by the title of the figure (in italics).

Below the figure include:

Figure 2

Syme Memorial

Note. Front view of the memorial displaying the column designs. From "Edwardian Melbourne and Cemetery Architecture," by J. J. Lintel, A. Corbel, and P. T. Rafter, 2019, Cemetery Art and Architecture, 20(1), p. 5. (https://doi.org/10.1030/yho0000359). Copyright 2019 by Doodle, Quiff & Co.

If this image is to be used in a document that will be published, e.g. a thesis, journal article, etc., you need to first seek permission from the copyright owner before including the image. The caption would then need to include a permission statement at the end - Reproduced with permission.

Figure 2

Syme Memorial

Note. Front view of the memorial displaying the column designs. From "Edwardian Melbourne and Cemetery Architecture," by J. J. Lintel, A. Corbel, and P. T. Rafter, 2019, Cemetery Art and Architecture, 20(1), p. 5. (https://doi.org/10.1030/yho0000359). Copyright 2019 by Doodle, Quiff & Co. Reproduced with permission.

Reference list

A full citation must be added to the reference list and formatted in the correct style of the original source, i.e. a journal article.

Lintel, J. J., Corbel, A., & Rafter, P. T. (2019). Edwardian Melbourne and cemetery architecture. Cemetery Art and Architecture, 20(1), 5-15. https://doi.org/10.1030/yho0000359

Referencing an image from a webpage

When you reproduce images webpages in your assignment, follow the instructions below.

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  1. Within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference
  2. In the figure layout include figure number, brief title above the image and notes underneath.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number.

The ceiling of the Springthorpe Memorial, as seen in Figure 3, provides a colourful contrast to the sober, neoclassical elements of the building (Light 2018).

Image layout

For a figure from a webpage, include a double-spaced caption with the following elements above the figure: label of figure in bold (e.g. Figure 3) followed by the title of the figure (in italics).

Below the figure, include

Figure 3

Stained glass ceiling, Springthorpe Memorial

Note. Red stained glass ceiling from below. From Stained Glass Ceilings in Australian Architecture, by A. B. Light, 2018, (http://ahas.org.au/stainedglassceilings_image1). Copyright 2020 by Australian Historic Architecture Society.

If this image is to be used in a document that will be published, e.g. a thesis, journal article, etc., you need to first seek permission from the copyright owner before including the image. The caption would then need to include a permission statement at the end - Reproduced with permission.

Note. Red stained glass ceiling from below. From Stained Glass Ceilings in Australian Architecture, by A. B. Light, 2018, (http://ahas.org.au/stainedglassceilings_image1). Copyright 2020 by Australian Historic Architecture Society. Reproduced with permission.

Reference list

Light, A. B. (2018). Stained glass ceilings in Australian architecture. Australian Historic Architecture Society. http://ahas.org.au/stainedglassceilings_image1

Referencing a Creative Commons image

There are many image collection webpages that provide access to images that don’t require permission for reproduction, but they often require you to acknowledge a licence.

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  1. Within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference
  2. In the figure layout include figure number, brief title above the image and notes underneath.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number.

As shown in Figure 4, the building is an example of... (Bain, 2019).

Image layout

For a figure from a creative commons source, include a double-spaced caption with the following elements above the figure: label of figure in bold (e.g. Figure 4) followed by the title of the figure (in italics).

Below the figure, include

Figure 4

Manchester Unity Building

Note. Showing the second-floor bay windows and the third-floor balconies integrated atop the window bays. From Detail of the Eastern Facade by S. Bain, 2009, (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Unity_Building#/media/File:Manchester_Unity_Building_east_facade_detail.jpg). Copyright by S. Bain. CC BY-SA 3.0.

Reference list

Bain, S. (2009). Detail of the eastern facade. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Unity_Building#/media/File:Manchester_Unity_Building_east_facade_detail.jpg

Referencing an image you have created yourself

A figure or image created by you and reproduced in your paper, does not need a figure. However, if the image requires more description or explanation that isn’t obvious from the title, you may wish to include a figure note. No reference list entry is required unless the figure has been published.

Referencing a webpage

Use this category only if the work does not fit better within another category, e.g., to cite a report from a website, use the reports category.

If briefly mentioning a website, your in-text citation should include the URL in brackets. You do not need to cite it again in your references list.

Beyondblue (https://www.beyondblue.org.au/) is a website supporting those with mental illness.

When a work has no identified author, cite in-text the first few words of the title and the year. If the title is italicised in the Reference List, also use italics in the in text citation. Use Title Case in the in text citation, even though sentence case is used in the Reference List.

For known organisations, an abbreviated form should be used for the second citation onwards - (World Trade Organization [WTO], 2016) then (WTO, 2016).

Direct quotation in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

No author example:

"The findings suggest that an intervention..." (Researchers Replicate Famous, 2018, para. 4).

Paraphrase in-text

Include either the author, company or organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

Organisational values are defined by... (Early Childhood Australia, 2016).

No author example:

...may not predict outcomes in later life (Researchers Replicate Famous, 2018).

Reference list

If citing information is taken directly from a webpage include author(s), or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets, webpage title in italics, website name and URL. If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early Childhood Australia's advocacy: Advocacy goals. http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

No author example:

Researchers replicate famous marshmallow test, make new observations. (2018, May 25). Medical Xpress. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-05-replicate-famous-marshmallow.html?utm_source=tabs&utm_medium=link&utm _campaign=story-tabs

Referencing a thesis viewed online

A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, an institutional repository, or an archive.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and include the page number(s) from the thesis.

"Contemporary design thinking is also the result of developments in design practice" (Camacho 2020).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

It was determined that the best outcome could be… (Camacho 2020)

Camacho (2020) reported that...

Reference list

For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, identify the type of work and institution in square brackets e.g. [Doctoral dissertation, Swinburne University of Technology] or [Master's thesis, Swinburne University of Technology], repository/archive/database name and include a URL.

Camacho, M. (2020). An integrative model of design thinking [Doctoral dissertation, Swinburne University of Technology]. Swinburne Research Bank. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/453792

For a thesis sources from a database, include the database name in place of the URL.

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Referencing Australian Government Webpages

Use this category only if the work does not fit better within another category, e.g., to cite a report from a government website, use the reports category.

Individual(s) as Author

When an individual or individuals have been named as authors rather a department, then follow the usual format for authors.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"Fruits showed greater losses than vegetables" in most states and territories... (Ambiel et al., 2019)

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. If there are three or more authors list the first family name followed by et al. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Ambiel et al. (2019) found that fruits in most states and territories...

Fruits found in most states and territories… (Ambiel et al., 2019)

Reference list

Ambiel, C., Adell, A., Sanguansri, P., Krause, D., Gamage, T., Garcia-Flores, R., & Juliano, P. (2019). Mapping Australian fruit and vegetable losses pre-retail. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. https://doi.org/10.25919/5d28d8ba0fad5

Government Department as author

If there is no individual author(s), provide the specific name of the department as the author, and the 'parent' agency as the publisher.

Direct quotation in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"Many schools are becoming more inclusive of young people who are same-sex attracted"... (Department of Health, 2022, para. 2)

Paraphrase in-text

Schools in Victoria are working harder at making schools more inclusive... (Department of Health, 2022)

The Department of Health (2022) states that...

Reference list

Only add a retrieval date if the contents of the page is designed to change over time.

Department of Health. (2022). Working with LGBTI children and young people. Victoria State Government. https://www.health.vic.gov.au/populations/working-with-lgbti-children-and-young-people

Referencing a blog post

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Depression can have a profound impact on affected individuals" (Mehler, 2018, para. 5).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The effect of depression on people can be... (Mehler, 2018)

Mehler states that the effect of depression... (2018)

Reference list

Include the following: the author(s), company or organisation name, year of publication, month, day, title of blog post, blog title (italicised) and a URL.

Mehler, D. (2018, June 2). Closing the loop for brain imaging in depression: What have we learned and where are we heading? The Official PLOS Blog. https://theplosblog.plos.org/2018/06/closing-the-loop-for-brain-imaging-in-depression-what-have-we-learned-and-where-are-we-heading-by-david-mehler/

Referencing Instagram

Please check with your teacher or lecturer whether social media and apps are considered acceptable sources to cite or not.

General Note:

In-text reference will either include author, company name or organisation name and year.

Direct quotation in-text

The post describes how the software "automates all steps" (Schultz, 2017)

Paraphrase in-text

If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Despite rumours by media agencies, it has been confirmed that Ebola has not spread to Iraq (World Health Organization [WHO], 2015).

World Health Organization [WHO] (2015) confirmed in a tweet that the Ebola virus had not spread to Iraq despite previous suspicions.

Instagram Photo

Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the Instagram handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a full stop.

Philadelphia Museum of Art [@philamuseum]. (2019, December 3). "It's always wonderful to walk in and see my work in a collection where it's loved, and where people are [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B5oDnnNhOt4/

Instagram Video

APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BysOqenB1v7/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link

Instagram Highlight

Include the description “[Highlight]” in square brackets. Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time (users can add or remove stories from the highlight) and is not archived. Provide the URL of the highlight./p>

The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved January 6, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/stories/highlights/17962199170163462/

Instagram Profile

Use the name of the profile page you want to cite in the title element of the reference (e.g., “Posts,” “IGTV,” “Tagged”). Include the description “[Instagram profile]” in square brackets. Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived. Provide the URL of the page./p>

Swift, T. [@taylorswift]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/taylorswift

Referencing Twitter

Please check with your teacher or lecturer whether social media and apps are considered acceptable sources to cite or not.

General Note:

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the author/company name/organisation name and year.

In relation to the Supreme Court vacancy in the United States, Barack Obama (2016) tweeted that "it's time for Senate leaders to put politics aside and fill the Supreme Court vacancy."

Paraphrase in-text

Include either the author, company or organisation name and year of tweet in brackets.

Barack Obama (2016) tweeted his concerns over the Supreme Court vacancy.

Reference list

If citing information taken directly from a tweet include author(s), company or organisation name, followed by the Twitter handle in square brackets, include the year, month and day in brackets, followed by the first 20 words of the tweet as the title and hashtag(s) in italics, if the post contains an image or video include it in square brackets, describe the form type in square brackets e.g. [Tweet], include Twitter as the source and provide a URL to the tweet.

Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2016, May 18). It's time for Senate leaders to put politics aside and fill the Supreme Court vacancy #DoYourJob [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/732589315478290432

Referencing Facebook

Please check with your teacher or lecturer whether social media and apps are considered acceptable sources to cite or not.

General Note:

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide either the author, company or organisation name and year.

"A mental hazard at work can be poor support to workers" (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, 2019).

Paraphrase in-text

Include either the author, company or organisation name and year of the Facebook post in brackets.

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (2020) states that workplace mental health hazards are responsible for...

Reference list

If citing information taken directly from a Facebook post include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year, month and day in brackets, include the first 20 words of the post as the title in italics, if the post contains an image or video include it in square brackets, describe the form type in square brackets e.g. [Status update], include Facebook as the source and provide a URL to the post.

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation. (2020, November 28). Workplace mental health hazards injure thousands of workers each year, just like physical hazards but they often fly under the [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/AustralianNursingandMidwiferyFederation/photos/a.136188899856341/1935273223281224/

Referencing a government or corporate report

A report's author can be individual(s), a company or government department.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document. Include either the author, company or government department name and year of publication.

If the document does not contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"For private hospitals, the recurrent expenditure data provided for 2014–15 are considered comparable with the data provided for 2010–11 to 2013–14" (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016, p. 47).

Paraphrase in-text

Include either the author, company or government department name and year of publication in brackets.

Public hospital expenditure increased dramatically... (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016)

Reference list

Include the author(s) if stated; otherwise add the company, organisation or government department, followed by the year of publication in brackets.

As the document is a report, the title is italicised and, if there is a report number, place it in brackets immediately after the title. If the report has been sourced online make sure to include the URL.

Only identify the publisher if they have not been identified as the author.

Winthrop, R., Ziegler, L., Handa, R., & Fakoya, F. (2019). How playful learning can help leapfrog progress in education. Center for Universal Education at Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2019/04/how_playful_learning_can_help_leapfrog_progress_in_education.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Hospital resources 2014–15: Australian hospital statistics (Health services series No. 71, Cat. No. HSE 176). http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129556122

ANZ. (2022). ANZ Annual report 2021. https://www.anz-2021-annual-report.com.au/2/

Referencing statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics

The first in-text citation will need to include the authoring body's name in full, followed by its abbreviation or acronym in square brackets. You can there use the abbreviation for subsequent in-text uses.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and add a page or section number.

The factor were “that the population increased due to…” (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2022, para. 3))

Paraphrase in-text

The Australian population is currently… (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2022)

ABS (2022) provide statistics that...

Reference list

Include title and catalogue number if one is available. Only include a retrieval date if the contents of the page are designed to change over time. Publisher is not required as it is the same the author.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2018 (No.4430.0). http://www.abs.gov.au

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2022). Population clock. Retrieved June 20, 2022. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Web+Pages/Population+Clock

Referencing a standard from Standards Australia

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the specific standard you are using.

It is the responsibility of all to ensure "workplace safety ..." (Standards Australia, 2018, p. 7).

Standards Australia (2018) states that "workplace safety ..." (p. 12).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the organisation name (for example, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the organisation name.

... in relation to scaffold decking (Standards Australia, 2018).

Standards Australia (2018) states that scaffold decking includes...

Reference list

Provide the title in italics, the standard number in brackets. The author and publisher are the same therefore, you do not need to include the publisher information at the end of the reference.

Standards Australia. (2018). Scaffold decking components (AS/NZS Standard No. 1577:2018).

Industry or Market Report from a Library database

If no individual(s) is listed as the author(s), use the name of the publishing database.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document. Include either the author, company or government department name and year of publication.

If the document does not contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

The solar industry in Australia includes, "the supply of electricity to the wholesale market using large-scale photovoltaic generation systems, or solar thermal systems" (Treisman, 2022, p. 3).

The brief highlights the trend that, “the rise of more casual fitness enthusiasts are reshaping the market”(Euromonitor International, 2019, para. 2).

Paraphrase in-text

Treisman (2022) provides details on the industry...

The industry outlook is looking strong due to... (Treisman, 2022)

Reference list

If the report has no author, use the name of the publishing database. If a report number is available include it in brackets after the title of the report, but not in italics. It can also be helpful to describe the type of material in brackets after the title if it's not clear. If the publisher is the same as the author, it doesn’t need to be included. Include the database login URL.

Euromonitor International. (2019, September 19). A new view on the market for protein bars [Briefing]. Passport. http://www.portal.euromonitor.com

MarketLine. (2018). Hotels & motels in New Zealand [Industry profile]. https://www.marketline.com/

Treisman, J. (2022, February). Solar electricity generation in Australia (Australian Industry (ANZSIC) Report D2619B). IBIS World. http://ibisworld.com

Referencing a video from YouTube

This can also be used for other streamed online videos such as TED Talk and Vimeo.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the person or group who uploaded the video, the year, and a timestamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number from the video.

People make "sweeping inferences and judgments from body language" (Cuddy, 2012, 2:12).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the person or group who uploaded the video and year of publication in brackets. Or, if the person or group in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after.

Reference list

The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author even if they did not create the work. Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video]. Provide the exact URL.

Above The Noise. (2017, October 18). Can procrastination be a good thing? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQMwmBNNOnQ

Referencing a video from a library database

Direct quotation in-text

Author is the director, producer or someone in a similar role. Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

…as shown in Understanding aged care "it's about involving people in their care" (Kratochvil, 2012, 01:22).

Paraphrase in-text

In Understanding aged care by Kratochvil (2012), there is ...

Reference list

Include a description of the role of the author. Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video]. The publisher is the producing institution, organisation, or hosting platform. If the author and publisher are the same leave publisher section blank. Provide the URL login page.

Kratochvil, M. (Director). (2012). Understanding aged care [Video]. ClickView. https://online.clickview.com.au/

Referencing a podcast

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"It was a good idea to use him again" (Webster & Abumrad, 2020, 00:15).

Paraphrasing

Include the host's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the host's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name. If there is no host listed, then use either the executive producer or producer as author instead.

Current research shows that... (Webster & Abumrad, 2020).

Webster and Abumrad (2020) comments that...

Reference list entry

List the host or executive producer in the author position and include their role in parentheses. Provide the specific date on which the podcast episode first aired. Specify the type of podcast episode in square brackets, for example: [Audio podcast], [Video podcast]. Write the word "In" and then the title of the podcast in italics. Provide the exact URL. If the URL of the podcast is unknown (e.g., if accessed via an app), omit the URL from the reference.

Webster, M., & Abumrad, J. (Hosts). (2020, September 11). Bringing gamma back, again [Audio podcast]. In Radiolab. WNYC Studios. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/bringing-gamma-back

Referencing course material

This can include recorded lectures, class notes, materials and resources.

Examples includes PowerPoint slides, Word documents, PDFs, audio files etc. relating to lectures, classes, seminars and workshops. Treat unrecorded lectures as a personal communication.

Not all departments accept these as reference sources. Please check with your teacher or lecturer whether these are considered an acceptable source to cite.

Lecture Recording or Class Notes

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Scandinavian design demonstrates…" (Huppatz, 2022)

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

… (Huppatz, 2022)

Huppatz (2022)…

Reference list

The reference list citation should include: the author(s) name, year, month and day of lecture, title of the lecture in italics, a description of the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Lecture recording], university name and learning management software name, and a retrieval statement in the form of a URL (use the login page).

Huppatz, D. (2022, May 2). Scandinavian design [Lecture recording], Canvas@Swinburne University of Technology. https://swinburne.instructure.com/

Huppatz, D. (2022, May 2). Scandinavian design [Lecture notes], Canvas@Swinburne University of Technology. https://swinburne.instructure.com/

PowerPoint Slides

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and add the slide number.

"The early to mid-1950s had been a time of great experimentation" (Finley 2022, sl. 2).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Furniture design changed in a number of ways in this period… (Finley 2022)

Finley (2022) states that furniture from the 1950s…

Reference list

The reference list citation should include: the author(s) name, year, month and day of lecture, title of the lecture in italics, a description of the form type inside square brackets e.g. [PowerPoint slides], university name and learning management software name, and a URL (use the login page).

Finley, G. (2022, April 4). Australian furniture design of the 1950s and 60s [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@Swinburne University of Technology. https://swinburne.instructure.com/

Referencing education curriculum resources

The first in-text citation will need to include the authoring body's name in full, followed by its abbreviation or acronym in square brackets. You can there use the abbreviation for subsequent in-text uses.

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ". If using a PDF version include the page numbers. When citing a section from the website, use paragraph number.

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2014, p. 7)

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2014, para. 2)

Paraphrase in-text

Include the curriculum authority and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] (2014) states that...

The document states that… (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2014).

Reference list

Do not abbreviate the name, but spell out in full as it appears in the source.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2014). Foundation to year 10 curriculum: Language for interaction. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/english/curriculum/f-10?layout=1#cdcode=ACELA1428&level=F OR

When using multiple reports from the same website, differentiate the sources by adding a letter to the year.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2014a). Foundation to year 10 curriculum: Language for interaction. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/english/curriculum/f-10?layout=1#cdcode=ACELA1428&level=F OR

Referencing legal sources

American Psychological Association Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association does not cover Australian legal material. The citation details below are based on a combination of other types of resources such as webpages to fit to an author date style for use by Swinburne students.

Act of Parliament

In-text citation

It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction (geographic area) of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets: (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, New South Wales (NSW), Tasmania (Tas), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA), Western Australia (WA), Northern Territory (NT), Australian Capital Territory (ACT).

Note: Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

Direct quotation

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Paraphrase

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section number s. (if applicable) in brackets.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29)...

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that...

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic)...

Reference list

The title of the legislation and year are to be italicised. Include the jurisdiction of the legislation in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation (see above). If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section. If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Legal Cases

In-text citation

Note: Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

Direct quotation

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Paraphrasing in-text

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011)...

...(Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Reference list

For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number. If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a URL.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Bill

Bills are treated as unpublished works and the title is not italicised.

Useful abbreviations for jurisdiction: (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, New South Wales (NSW), Tasmania (Tas), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA), Western Australia (WA), Northern Territory (NT), Australian Capital Territory (ACT).

In-text citation

Include the short title of the bill, year, jurisdiction (geographic area) abbreviated, subdivision number if available.

As outlined in the Liability for Climate Change Commonwealth Bill (2020, s. 15).

Reference list

Include the short title of the bill, year, jurisdiction (abbreviated - see above), subdivision number (if relevant), URL if retrieved from a website.

Liability for Climate Change Bill 2020 (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2020B00019

Referencing a personal communication

Personal Communications can include emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from non-archived discussion groups or online bulletin boards, and so on.

Examples

My field placement supervisor commented '. . .' (C. M. Burns, personal communication, July 3, 2015).

The details of . . . were confirmed by email (J. Merrick, personal communication, April 25, 2014).

When citing in-text, include the author first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication took place.

Referencing a work with no DOI

Direct quotation in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the article. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

It was note that, "Psychological factors can have a major impact on breathing" (Marshall, K., 2020, What is breathlessness?, para. 8).

Paraphrase in-text

Include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Difficult breathing can be due to a number of different conditions... (Marshall, 2020)

Marshall (2020) indicates that breathing difficulties...

Reference list

If the journal article has no URL but it came from the web, include the URL.

Marshall, K. (2020). Breathlessness: Causes, assessment and non-pharmacological management. Nursing Times, 116(9), 24-26. https://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/respiratory-clinical-archive/breathlessness-causes-assessment-and-non-pharmacological-management-2-10-08-2020/

If it is from a print journal, just include the other elements for a journal article as you usually would.

Beaudoin, K. M., Knuth, R., & Benner, G. J. (2008). Social validation of services for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders: A comparative study. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 1-7.

Introduction to IEEE style

About the IEEE style

IEEE is the citation style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). References are numbered sequentially, that is, [1], [2], [3] and so on, in-text in the body of the document.

A Reference list at the end of the document provides full details of all references cited in-text.

Reference numbers are listed sequentially, not alphabetically by author, that is [1], [2], [3] and so on, in the order they appear in the body of the document.

This guide is based on the IEEE Reference Guide 2022.

General rules for in-text citations

In-text citations are inserted in the text as numbers within square brackets and precede any punctuation, with a space before the bracket. For example: [1] or [14].

In-text citations start at [1] and continue in ascending order within the document.

Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in the document if it is referred to again. IEEE does not require author(s) or dates of any source to be cited in-text.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is the practice of expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Citation numbers may be placed at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. It is not a requirement to add page numbers when paraphrasing.

When referring to authors in-text, list all author family names, up to the first two listed authors.

If referring to three or more authors, list only the family name of the first author followed by et al. (in italics) for the first and subsequent citations.

Aristotle [2] argues that…

In their seminal work, Phillips and Pugh [3] guide students through their PhD journey.

Freedman et al. [9] discuss the exponential growth in our knowledge of the solar system.

According to the latest data [6], global heating is accelerating rapidly.

For example, see [7].

Direct quotes

Directly quoting is the practice of using the exact words of the author(s).

Do not overuse direct quotes: avoid using quotes longer than three lines.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add the citation number followed by a comma and the page number(s), preceded by p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages).

“The real-time price of electricity can be acquired from the utility” [1, p. 199].

If the source has no page numbers

Use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

"Many scientists have raised the alarm about global warming" [1, Ch. 3, para. 2].

Omitting words from a direct quote

Add a space followed by three ellipsis dots and another space to indicate a break in the quote.

“The Cat’s Eye Nebula … was first discovered in 1786” [4, p. 1637].

Citing more than one reference at once

List all multiple citations in ascending numerical order. For example:

For more details, see [1], [3] and [5].

As discussed in [6] and [7].

The en-dash symbol is used when citing a source range. For example:

According to the latest data [6]–[8], global heating is accelerating rapidly.

The Enlightenment was a key period for scientific discovery [11]–[12].

How to insert an en dash:

On a Windows computer, hold the Ctrl and (minus sign) keys. On a Mac computer, hold the option and hyphen keys.

Citing the same reference multiple times

Repeat the earlier reference number. If referring to a different page number, or other reference within the same source, use the following format:

Secondary citation

A secondary citation is the acknowledgement of the work of an author that you have read about in another author’s work. IEEE does not allow for the use of secondary citations.

If a secondary citation must be used, the original source must be located and cited. If the original source cannot be located, do not cite it.

Using acronyms and abbreviations

Acronyms

Write out an acronym in full the first time it is used, followed by the acronym in parentheses. Use the acronym only subsequently. See the Abbreviations section for more details.

Abbreviations

Month abbreviations

When citing journals, standards, patents and websites in the reference list, abbreviate the following months with a full stop.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

May, June and July are written in full and do not require a full stop.

Use a forward slash for a bimonthly issue and an en-dash for a quarterly. For example:

Apr./May 2022

June–Aug. 2021

Word abbreviations

Abbreviate standard IEEE words in the reference list: see Useful Abbreviations in References on page 20 of the IEEE Reference Guide 2022.

Journal and magazine title abbreviations

Abbreviate IEEE journal titles in the reference list. See: IEEE Magazine Titles and Reference Abbreviations and IEEE Journal Titles and Abbreviations 2018.

For non-IEEE journal titles, see Useful Abbreviations and Common Abbreviations of Words in References on page 20 of the IEEE Reference Guide 2022.

If an abbreviation is not included and/or cannot be abbreviated according to IEEE guidelines, spell out the title in full.

One word journal titles

One word journal titles such as Nature and Science should be fully spelled out.

Conference proceeding abbreviations

See page 5 of the IEEE Reference Guide 2022 for a list of abbreviations.

Publisher abbreviations

See page 24 of the IEEE Reference Guide 2022 for a list of abbreviations.

Acronyms in-text

Write an acronym in full the first time it is referred to and add the acronym in parentheses. Use the acronym only in subsequent references.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) [3] report identifies …

The NASA [3] report also outlines …

Acronyms in the reference list

Write organisational/corporate author names in full in the reference list.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Space flight: the first 30 years,” NASA, Washington, DC, USA, Rep. 1, 1991.

General rules for the reference list

Digital object identifier (DOI)

Online sources should include a digital object identifier (DOI) if available. A DOI is a unique identifier that provides a persistent (permanent) link to the source. Add a full stop at the end of a DOI.

If the source does not have a DOI

If there is no DOI, use the journal/database homepage URL if the source is a library database, or the full URL if the source is a website. There is no full stop at the end of a URL.

Place of publication

Abbreviate the names of US states and territories: use the official US Postal Service abbreviations.

New Haven, CT, USA: Yale Univ. Press, 2019.

Use the city name and country abbreviation for cities in the United Kingdom.

Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2021.

Use the city name and country for countries outside the United States and United Kingdom.

Melbourne, Australia: Text Publishing, 2020.

Example of a reference list

K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 9th ed. Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, 2016.

H. Lodish et al., Molecular Cell Biology, 9th ed. New York, NY, USA: Macmillan, 2021.

Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 6th ed. Newtown Square, PA, USA: Project Management Institute, 2017.

V. Vinodkumar, C. Amrutha and D. S. Nagesh “Overview of medical device development,” in Biomedical Product and Materials Evaluation: Standards and Ethics, P. V. Mohanan, Ed., Duxford, U. K: Woodhead Publishing, 2022, pp. 1-24.

P. Leedy and J. Ormrod, Practical Research: Planning and Design, 12th ed. Harlow, U. K.: Pearson Education Limited, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

L. L. P. Chung, Y. C. Wong and A. Arulrajah, “The application of spent coffee grounds and tea wastes as additives in alkali-activated bricks,” Waste Biomass Valorization, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 6273-6291, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.1007/s12649-021-01453-7.

J. Ruane, A. McAfee and W. D. Oliver, “Quantum computing for business leaders,” Harvard Business Review, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 112-121, Jan./Feb. 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.ebsco.com/

T. Calabria, “Telecommunications services in Australia,” IBISWorld, Melbourne, Australia, Rep. J5800, 2022. Accessed: Aug. 15, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://my.ibisworld.com/au/en/industry/home

M. Ahmed, M. Imran Malik and P. Haskell-Downland. “Goodbye Internet Explorer. You won’t be missed (but your legacy will be remembered).” The Conversation. Accessed: June 20, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://theconversation.com/goodbye-internet-explorer-you-wont-be-missed-but-your-legacy-will-be-remembered-185130

E. Woo. Sydney, Australia. Introduction to Mechanics: Part 1. (Aug. 11, 2021). Accessed: July 11, 2022. [Online Video]. Available: https://youtu.be/ZFWH1S89EdQ

Book with single author

Paraphrasing in-text

Include the citation number in square brackets. If referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As discussed in [2], quality control tools and techniques are widely available.

Schwalbe [2] states that …

Direct quote in-text

Place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Good project risk management often goes unnoticed” [2, p. 464].

Schwalbe notes that “good project risk management often goes unnoticed” [2, p. 464].

Reference list

When citing books, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication.

K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 9th ed. Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, 2016.

Book with two authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family names.

List both authors using ‘and’ between the two author family names when citing in-text.

Deliberate backdoors are discussed in [2].

Goodrich and Tamassia [2] explain that deliberate backdoors…

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“A logic bomb is a program that performs a malicious action as a result of a certain logic condition” [2, p. 177].

Reference list

List both authors, separating the two author names with ‘and’.

When citing books, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication.

M. Goodrich and R. Tamassia, Introduction to Computer Security, Boston, MA, USA: Pearson, 2011.

Book with three to six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family names.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Accurate aerial control systems are crucial [2].

Ronzhin et al. [2] state that aerial control systems …

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“The average flight time is usually limited to 10–25 min for lightweight multi-copters using Li-Po batteries” [2, p. 3].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing books, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication.

A. Ronzhin, T. Ngo, Q. Vu and V. Nguyen, Ground and Air Manipulation Systems in Agriculture, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG, 2021.

Book with more than six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family names.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Centrifugation is the first process in protein purification [2].

Lodish et al. [2] discuss methods for polymer and particle separation.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Rate-zonal centrifugation has proved to be a practical method for separating many different types of polymers and particles” [2, p. 93].

Reference list

If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing books, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication.

H. Lodish et al., Molecular Cell Biology, 9th ed. New York, NY, USA: Macmillan, 2021.

Book with an organisational/corporate author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisational/corporate author in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisational/corporate author.

Project management is about people, not just numbers and systems [2].

The Project Management Institute (PMI) [2] considers all aspects of project management of equal importance.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Each project contains individual risks that can affect the achievement of project objectives” [2, p. 397].

Reference list

Place the organisational/corporate name in the author position and write in full. When citing a book by an organisational/corporate author, include the following information where available:

Name of organisation/corporation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 6th ed. Newtown Square, PA, USA: Project Management Institute, 2017.

Book translated into English

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Vitruvius [2] discusses building methods and materials in detail.

Sites for public buildings must be carefully considered [2].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“If our designs for private houses are to be correct, we must at the outset take note of the countries and climates in which they are built” [2, p. 170].

Reference list

When citing a translated book, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family names(s) Title of Book, (Transl.: initials. Family name/s), Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, (Transl.: M. H. Morgan), New York, NY, USA: Dover, 1960.

Book chapter in an edited book

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

The process of medical device development is complex [2].

Vinodkumar et al. [2] outline the complexities of medical device development.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Clinical evidence for a medical device is critical in order to prove the safety and effectiveness of that device before marketing” [2, p. 18].

Reference list

When citing a book chapter, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of the chapter," in Title of the Book, Ed., (editor if available), ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. chapter/s or first and last pages of the chapter.

V. Vinodkumar, C. Amrutha and D. S. Nagesh, “Overview of medical device development,” in Biomedical Product and Materials Evaluation: Standards and Ethics, P. V. Mohanan, Ed., Duxford, U. K: Woodhead Publishing, 2022, pp. 1-24.

Ebook in a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

A research project is a significant undertaking that takes time to complete [2].

Leedy and Ormrod [2] note the time needed to complete a research project.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Survey research captures a fleeting moment in time, much as a camera takes a single-frame photograph of an ongoing activity” [2, p. 181].

Reference list

When citing ebooks from a library database, include the following information where available.

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication. [Online]. Available: database homepage URL

P. Leedy and J. Ormrod, Practical Research: Planning and Design, 12th ed. Harlow, U. K.: Pearson Education Limited, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Ebook on a website

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Not all elements are good conductors of heat and electricity [2].

Flowers et al. [2] discuss which elements are good conductors of heat and electricity.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

“A cold pack used to treat muscle strains provides an example of an endothermic process” [2, p. 236].

Reference list

When citing ebooks on a website, include the following information where available.

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication. [Online]. Available: URL

P. Flowers et al., Chemistry 2nd ed. Houston, TX, USA: OpenStax, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://openstax.org/details/books/chemistry-2e

Dictionary or encyclopedia

When citing dictionaries and encyclopedias, use the format for chapter in an edited book.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The concentration of indoor pollutants varies considerably [5].

Baek [5] states that indoor pollutant concentrations vary.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Humidity also affects volatile emissions … ” [5, p. 213].

Reference list

When citing a book chapter, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of the chapter," in Title of the Book, Ed., (editor if available), ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: abbrev. Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. chapter/s or first and last pages of the chapter.

S. O. Baek, “Assessing indoor air quality,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, J. O. Nriagu, Ed., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Elsevier, 2011, pp. 213-220.

General rules for journal and magazine articles

Note:

See the Abbreviations section for requirements. If an abbreviation is not included and/or cannot be abbreviated according to IEEE guidelines, spell out the title in full.

When citing online journals, include a digital object identifier (DOI). If there is no DOI, include either the journal/database homepage URL if the source is a library database, or the full URL if the source is a website.

Journal article with a single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The use of animations in education is contested [2].

Cook [2] identifies when animations are most helpful.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Humour was intentionally incorporated, partly as it has been shown to reduce student anxiety … ” [3, p. 598].

Reference list

When citing journal articles, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Year, doi: xxxx.

E. Cook, “Stop-motion LEGO animations for learning linear algebra,” Int. J. of Math. Educ. in Sci. and Technol., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 594-602, Oct. 2022, doi: 10.1080/0020739X.2021.1983050.

Journal article with two authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Communicating with a robot is dramatically different from communicating with a human [3].

Gemeinboeck and Saunders [3] explain the difference between human-to-human and human-to-robot communication.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“… robots should be conceived of as machinelike, rather than humanlike … ” [3, p. 552].

Reference list

List both authors, separating the two author names with ‘and’.

When citing journal articles, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year, doi: xxxx.

P. Gemeinboeck and R. Saunders, “Moving beyond the mirror: relational and performative meaning making in human-robot communication,” AI and Soc., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 549-563, June 2022, doi: 10.1007/s00146-021-01212-1.

Journal article with three to six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

The process of traditional brick making in a kiln causes significant air pollution [3].

Chung et al. [3] note the need for sustainable brick production techniques.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Chung et al. confirm that “Australians, especially in the city of Melbourne, show deep affection for coffee beverages and are responsible for a large amount of coffee waste every year” [3, p. 6275].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing journal articles, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Year, doi: xxxx.

L. L. P. Chung, Y. C. Wong and A. Arulrajah, “The application of spent coffee grounds and tea wastes as additives in alkali-activated bricks,” Waste Biomass Valorization, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 6273-6291, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.1007/s12649-021-01453-7.

Journal article with more than six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Causal discovery is a complex problem [3].

Zhang et al. [3] outline how causal discovery is formulated.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Zhang et al. admit that "causal interference based on observed data is a challenging task" [3, p. 3232].

Reference list

If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing journal articles, include the following information where available:

Author initials. Family name, "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Year, doi: xxxx.

H. Zhang et al., “Learning causal structures based on divide and conquer,” IEEE Trans. Cybern., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 3232-3243, May 2022, doi: 10.1109/TCYB.2020.3010004.

Journal article in a library database without a DOI

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

The authors explain the ways in which quantum computing supports business activity [3].

In their paper, Ruane et al. [3] argue that quantum computing can improve encryption technologies used in business enterprises.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“It will most likely take some 1000 physical qubits to make a single logical qubit” [3, p. 116].

Reference list

When citing journal articles without a DOI from library databases, include the following information where available.

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Year. [Online]. Available: database homepage URL

J. Ruane, A. McAfee and W. D. Oliver, “Quantum computing for business leaders,” Harvard Business Review, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 112-121, Jan./Feb. 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.ebsco.com/

Journal article with an Article ID/Number

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Blue carbon can play a central role in climate change mitigation [3].

Hilmi et al. [3] discuss the possibilities of blue carbon in climate change mitigation.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

“If degraded or lost, coastal blue carbon ecosystems are likely to release most of their carbon back to the atmosphere” [3, para. 3].

Reference list

When citing journal articles with an article ID/number, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), abbrev. Month (if available) Year, Art. no. doi: xxxx.

N. Hilmi et al., “The role of blue carbon in climate change mitigation and carbon stock conservation,” Frontiers in Climate, vol. 3, Sept. 2021, Art. no. 710546, doi: 10.3389/fclim.2021.710546.

Journal article early access/article in press

Use this format for articles in library databases categorised as early access or article in press.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Web platforms that evaluate manufacturing risks can be efficient [3].

Generosi et al. [3] discuss digital platforms that evaluate manufacturing risks.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

“…there are now many simulation tools that support ergonomic analyses …” [3, para. 2].

Reference List

When citing in press or early access articles, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, abbrev. Month (if available) Year, early access, in press etc. doi: xxxx.

A. Generosi, T. Agostinelli, S. Ceccacci and M. Mengoni, “A novel platform to enable the future human-centered factory,” Int. J. of Adv. Manuf. Technol., Aug. 2022, early access. doi: 10.1007/s00170-022-09880-z.

S. Shikha, V. More and R. Batheri, “Driving electric vehicles into the future with battery management systems,” IEEE Eng. Manag. Rev., 2022, article in press. doi: 10.1109/EMR.2022.3194655.

Magazine article in a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Paul [4] evaluates several VPN services currently on the market.

It’s important to think carefully before purchasing a VPN service [4].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

“In our tests, Hotspot Shield maintained around 67 percent of the base speed” [4, p. 59].

Reference list

When citing magazine articles from library databases, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Year. [Online]. Available: database homepage URL

I. Paul, “Best VPN services: top picks for speed, price, privacy, and more,” PCWorld, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 57-66, Jan. 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.ebsco.com/

Magazine article on a website

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Little is known about the vampire squid [3].

Nasrullah [3] describes the evolutionary journey of the vampire squid.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

Vampire squid are so named for their “cloak-like spooky appearance” [3, para. 2].

Reference list

When citing magazine articles from websites, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available), Year. Accessed: abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

Q. Nasrullah, “The Jurassic world of the vampire squid,” Cosmos, June 2022. Accessed: July 1, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://cosmosmagazine.com/history/palaeontology/jurassic-vampire-squid/

Newspaper article in a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Renewable energy experts say investment in offshore wind is inadequate [3].

Foley [3] notes the potential for long term employment in offshore wind projects.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

“The Star of the South offshore wind farm is the most advanced offshore project in the country” [3, para. 10].

Reference list

When citing newspaper articles from library databases, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Newspaper, pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

M. Foley, “Offshore wind a dark horse in race to replace coal with renewables,” The Age, July 2, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://global.factiva.com

Newspaper article on a newspaper website

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

NATO has changed markedly in recent times [3].

Harris [3] traces the changes in NATO since the war in Ukraine.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

“The geopolitical map has been redrawn … ” [3, para. 7].

Reference list

When citing newspaper articles from newspaper websites, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Newspaper, pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available) Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

R. Harris, “The fall and rise of NATO,” The Sydney Morning Herald, July 2, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.smh.com.au/world/europe/the-fall-and-rise-of-nato-20220701-p5ay73.html

Conference paper in a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Usability testing is a website evaluation tool [5].

As Xiong et al. [5] explain, usability is a central consideration when designing websites.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Xiong et al. confirm there are "many models, frameworks, and methods for evaluating university websites” [5, p. 305].

Reference list

When citing conference papers from library databases, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of paper," in abbrev. Title of Conference, (location of conference is optional), Year, pp. first and last pages of paper, doi: xxxx.

Z. Y. Xiong, W. Huihui and L. Yu, “Usability evaluation and redesign of university portal websites,” in ICCIR 2021: Proc. 2021 Int. Conf. Control and Intell. Robot., pp. 305-309, doi: 10.1145/3473714.3473767.

Industry, company or market report in a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author's family name or an organisational/corporate/government author in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the author.

Telecommunications companies in Australia offer mobile and wired services [6].

Calabria [6] provides a SWOT analysis of the telecommunications industry.

Electric vehicles will dominate the market, according to a recent MarketLine report [7].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

Calabria states that “mobile telecommunications density is expected to rise in 2021-22” [6, p. 10].

“Tesla is intertwined with the fortunes of the electric vehicle” [7, p. 29].

Reference list

When citing industry, company or market research reports from library databases, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s) or organisation/company name, "Title of report," Name of Organisation, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Rep. no., Year. Accessed: abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

T. Calabria, “Telecommunications services in Australia,” IBISWorld, Melbourne, Australia, Rep. J5800, 2022. Accessed: Aug. 15, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://my.ibisworld.com/au/en/industry/home

MarketLine, “Electrified vehicles: march of electrification continues globally, energy security issues are accelerating progress,” MarketLine, London, U. K., Rep. no. ML00026-043, 2022. Accessed: Aug. 24, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://advantage-marketline-com

Report with an organisational/corporate/government author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisational/corporate/government author in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the author.

The Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) [6] makes the case for urgent action.

AEMO [6] sets out a plan for energy transition in Australia.

The report confirms the role of climate change in the 2022 NSW flood events [7].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

AEMO states that “all actionable projects should progress as urgently as possible” [6, p. 12].

The government must “build a disaster adaptation plan for each city and town” [7, p. 28].

Reference list

When citing reports with an organisational/corporate/government author, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s) or organisation/company name, "Title of report," abbrev. Name of Organisation, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Rep. no., Year. Accessed: abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

Australian Energy Market Operator, “2022 integrated system plan for the national electricity market,” Australian Energy Market Operator, Melbourne, Australia, Rep. 1.0, 2022. Accessed: July 15, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://aemo.com.au/energy-systems/major-publications/integrated-system-plan-isp/2022-integrated-system-plan-isp

NSW Independent Flood Inquiry, “2022 Flood inquiry volume one: summary report,” NSW Independent Flood Inquiry, Sydney, Australia, vol. 1, 2022. Accessed: Aug. 23, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/noindex/2022-08/VOLUME_ONE_Summary.pdf

Statistics from Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

Use the format for webpage with an organisational/corporate/government author.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisational/corporate/government author in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the author.

Industry water use declined in the period 2019-2020 [7].

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) [7] provides data on water use in Australia for the period 2019-2020.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

“In 2019-20 total water use remained stable … ” [7, para. 1].

Reference list

When citing webpages with an organisational/corporate/government author, include the following information where available:

Organisation/company name. “Title of webpage.” Title of Website (if available). Accessed: abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

Australian Bureau of Statistics. “Water account, Australia.” Australian Bureau of Statistics. Accessed: Aug. 24, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/environment/environmental-management/water-account-australia/

Australian/ISO standard

Use this format for Australian, international (ISO), British and European standards.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisation name.

It is crucial that a business enterprise identifies its security needs [9].

Standards Australia [9] sets out security requirements in its code of practice.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are not required for this format type.

“Care should be taken that no single person can access, modify or use assets without authorization or detection” [9].

Reference list

When citing an Australian or ISO standard, include the following information where available:

Title of Standard, Standard number, date. [Online]. Available: URL

Information Technology – Security Techniques – Code of Practice for Information Security Controls, AS ISO/IEC 27002:2015, Apr. 29, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://subscriptions.techstreet.com/products/828598

IEEE standard

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisation name.

Ethernet capabilities will continue to evolve [9].

The IEEE Standards Association [9] sets outs major additions to the standard.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are not required for this format type.

“The trunk coaxial medium requires termination and is partitioned into sections” [9].

Reference list

When citing an IEEE standard, include the following information where available:

Title of Standard, Standard Number, date. [Online]. Available: URL

IEEE Standard for Ethernet, 802.3-2018, Aug. 31, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8457469

ASTM standard

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisation name.

Electric welding can repair the pipe wall [9].

ASTM International [9] sets out the tensile requirements of the steel pipe.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are not required for this format type.

“Superficial cracks as a result of surface imperfections shall not be cause for rejection” [9].

Reference list

When citing an ASTM standard, include the following information where available:

Title of Standard, Standard Number, date. [Online]. Available: URL

Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe, A135/A135M – 21, Mar. 24, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://compass.astm.org/document/?contentCode=ASTM%7CA0135_A0135M-21%7Cen-US

Webpage with personal author/s

Use this category only if the source does not fit better within another category. For example, when citing a report from a website, use the reports category.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Explorer was the dominant web browser until Firefox appeared in 2002 [7].

Ahmed et al. [7] trace the development of the web browser, Internet Explorer.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

Explorer had weak security controls, “which cyber criminals readily and successfully exploited” [7, para. 11].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), in the order they appear on the website, separating the last two author names with ‘and’. If there are more than six authors, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing informal websites such as personal homepages, or websites without formal titles, use descriptive phrases in your citation in place of page or website titles.

When citing webpages, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s). "Title of webpage." Title of Website. (if available). Accessed: abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

M. Ahmed, M. Imran Malik and P. Haskell-Downland. “Goodbye Internet Explorer. You won’t be missed (but your legacy will be remembered).” The Conversation. Accessed: June 20, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://theconversation.com/goodbye-internet-explorer-you-wont-be-missed-but-your-legacy-will-be-remembered-185130

Webpage with an organisational/corporate/government author

Use this category only if the source does not fit better within another category. For example, when citing a report from a website, use the reports category.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisational/corporate/government author in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the author.

The technician will need to install a new system if the equipment is damaged [7].

The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) [7] provides a step-by-step guide for antenna installers.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

A customer’s home address will determine the “predicted level of coverage” [7, para. 1].

Reference list

When citing webpages with a corporate/organisational/government author, include the following information where available:

Organisation/company name. “Title of webpage.” Title of Website (if available). Accessed: abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

Australian Communications and Media Authority. “Steps for antenna installers to fix TV reception.” Australian Communications and Media Authority. Accessed: July 7, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.acma.gov.au/steps-antenna-installers-fix-tv-reception

Lectures and lecture notes

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Yang [9] provides an overview of quantitative methodologies.

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is not required when directly quoting from this type of source.

The lecturer clarifies when students should “write a proposal” [9].

Reference list

PowerPoint slides

Author(s) initials. Family name(s) (Year). Title of lecture [Type of Medium]. Available: URL

Y. Yang. (2022). Quantitative research methodologies [PowerPoint slides]. Available: https://swinburne.instructure.com/courses/40774/modules

Recorded online lecture

Authors(s) initials. Family name(s) (Year). Title of lecture. [Type of Medium]. Available: URL

Y. Yang. (2022). Research/project proposal writing: Module 08. [Online]. Available: https://au-lti.bbcollab.com/collab/ui/session/playback

YouTube/online video

Use this format for YouTube, TED Talks, Vimeo and similar online videos.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Woo [8] discusses the distinction between mathematics and physics.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is not required when directly quoting from this type of source.

“Experimentation doesn’t cut it in maths … ” [8].

Reference list

When citing a YouTube or online video, include the following information where available:

Video Owner/Creator, Place of Publication City (if available), abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country (if available). Title of Video: In Initial Caps. (Release date abbrev. Month Day, Year). Accessed: abbrev. Month Day, Year. [Online Video]. Available: URL

Personal creator

E. Woo. Sydney, Australia. Introduction to Mechanics: Part 1. (Aug. 11, 2021). Accessed: July 11, 2022. [Online Video]. Available: https://youtu.be/ZFWH1S89EdQ

Organisational/corporate creator

The School of Life, London, U. K. How Science Can Be as Comforting as Religion. (Aug. 5, 2020). Accessed: July 11, 2022. [Online Video]. Available: https://youtu.be/Q4EHaTszVUo

Streamed/online video from a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Mockaitis [8] explains ways to handle difficult questions.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is not required when directly quoting from this type of source.

There are key elements to a “knockout presentation” [8].

Reference list

When citing a streamed video from a library database, include the following information where available:

Video Owner/Creator, Place of Publication City (if available), abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country (if available). Title of Video: In Initial Caps. (Release date abbrev. Month Day, Year). Accessed: abbrev. Month Day, Year. [Online Video]. Available: URL

P. Mockaitis, Speaking Confidently and Effectively. (Nov. 23, 2020). Accessed: July 10, 2022. [Online Video]. Available: https://www.linkedin.com/learning/speaking-confidently-and-effectively/great-speaking-skills-are-a-must-have?autoplay=true&u=2091708

Thesis

A thesis or dissertation is considered published when it is available in a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, an institutional repository, or an archive.

Use the abbreviations Ph.D for a doctoral thesis and M.S. thesis for a Masters thesis.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

An edge server with limited capacity can cause delays for mobile users [9].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Cui [9, p. 2] confirms MEC is “a key technology that facilitates the 5G mobile network … ”

Reference list

When citing a thesis or dissertation, include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of thesis," Type of thesis, abbrev. Department, abbrev. University, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

Thesis from a university repository

G. Cui. “Cost-effective resource management in mobile edge computing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Comput. Technol., Swinburne Univ. Technol., Melbourne, Australia, 2022. [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/467759

Thesis from a library database

P. M. Bhatt. “Process planning for robotic additive manufacturing,” Ph.D. dissertation, USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.proquest.com/pqdt?accountid=14205

Patent

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than two authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Gu et al. [9] describe an innovative optical storage solution.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks “ ” and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

If there are no page numbers, use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

“A second technique for increasing storage density is to improve the optical resolution of the storage system” [9, p. 1].

Reference list

When citing a patent, include the following information where available:

Name of the invention, by inventor(s) name(s). (Year, abbrev. Month Day). Patent Number [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

Method and system for optical storage, by M. Gu, L. Xiangping and Y. Cao. (2017, Jan. 26), U.S. Patent 20170025143A1 [Online]. Available: https://patents.google.com

Referencing for students: AGLC4 style

Consulting the full AGCL4 guide

The Australian Guide to Legal Citation 4th Edition (AGLC4) referencing style uses footnotes and a bibliography and is widely used by law professionals. It is the standard style guide used by Swinburne Law School for assessment purposes.

The Australian Guide to Legal Citation 4th edition (AGLC4) is published and distributed by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc., in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc. Please refer to the guide https://law.unimelb.edu.au/mulr/aglc/about for further examples and details.

To see examples of papers published using AGLC4, see recent articles in Melb Uni Law Rev.

If you wish to cite a source which is not included in the full AGLC 4th edition, try to stick to the golden rules of AGLC; clarity and consistency. Also, a logical variation might be required due to your intended audience.

When and how to footnote Rule 1.1.1

Example

Thaler3 is one of a series of “DABUS”4 test cases being brought around the world.5

3 Thaler v Commissioner of Patents [2021] FCA 879.
4 “DABUS” is the name of an AI system. It stands for “a device for the autonomous bootstrapping of unified sentience”.
5 The website of The Artificial Inventor Project, which is supporting Dr Thaler’s patent applications, lists applications for two inventions in at least 17 jurisdictions: The Artificial Inventor, Patents and Applications <https://artificialinventor.com/patent-applications/>.

Multiple sources in footnotes Rule 1.1.3

Example

6 Gary Edmond, ‘Forensic Science Evidence and the Conditions for Rational (Jury) Evaluation’ (2015) 39(1) Melbourne University Law Review 77, 125–7. This commitment to ‘rationality’ is drawn from ss 55–6 of the Uniform Evidence Law and the definition of ‘probative value’ in s 3. The Uniform Evidence Law is the collection of the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth); Evidence Act 2011 (ACT); Evidence Act 2004 (Norfolk Island); Evidence Act 1995 (NSW); Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011 (NT); Evidence Act 2001 (Tas); Evidence Act 2008 (Vic).

Pinpoint references Rule 1.1.6 – 1.1.7

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph, footnote or other section of a source.

Examples

1 Universal Music Australia Pty Ltd and Others v Sharman License Holdings Ltd and Others (2005) 220 ALR 1, 3.

32 Roadshow Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 248 CLR 42, 48 [42].

56 See Supreme Court Rules 1987 (SA), r 84.05(2).

82 See Bankruptcy Act 1966 (Cth), ss 55 and 115.

Subsequent references Rule 1.4

Examples

1 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, opened for signature 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 150 (entered into force 22 April 1954) art 1A(2) ('Convention').

5 Convention (n 1) art 2B.

48 Adrian Coorey, Australian Consumer Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2014) 22.

54 Coorey (n 48) 46.

72 Defamation Act 2005 (Vic) s 37.
73 Ibid s 38.

Legal abbreviations

Case law general rules

Reported decisions Rule 2.2

Format

Case name (Year) Volume Report series     Starting page

Examples

Type

Citation example

Individual party names

Rowe v McCartney [1976] 2 NSWLR 72

Company party names

Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd v Emmott (2021) 396 ALR 497

Epic Games Inc v Apple Inc (2021) 286 FCR 105

The Crown as first party

R v Milat (2005) 157 A Crim R 565

The Crown as respondent

Honeysett v The Queen (2014) 253 CLR 122

Entry in footnote (with pinpoint)

Walton v Gardiner (1993) 177 CLR 378, 392.

Entry in bibliography

Walton v Gardiner (1993) 177 CLR 378

Unreported decisions Rule 2.3

Format

Case Name [Year] Court Judgment number

Examples

Type

Citation example

Individual party names

Vincent v Smith [2004] TASSC 141

Company party names

Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33

Unreported decision without a
medium neutral citation allocated

By the court

Ross v Chambers (Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956)

Entry in footnote with pinpoint

R v Giles [2014] VSC 210, [8].

Entry in bibliography

Tauaifaga v TCN Channel Nine Pty Ltd [2013] NSWSC 8

Legislation Rules 3.1 – 3.9

Format

Title Year (Jurisdiction) Pinpoint

Examples

3 Climate Change Act 2017 (Vic) pt 5 div 2 s 37.

22 Australian Constitution s 51 (xxxi).


Carer Recognition Bill 2010 (Cth)

Explanatory Memorandum, Adoption Amendment Bill 2013 (Tas)

Fire and Emergency Services Levy Regulation 2017 (NSW)

Police Pensions Ordinance 1958 (ACT)

Books Rule 6

Examples

33 Mathew Rimmer, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008) ch 5.
34 Patrick George et al, Social Media and the Law (LexisNexis, 3rd ed, 2020) 102.
35 Belinda Bennett (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008) 225-226.
36 Damien J Cremean, Michael H Whitten and Michael F Sharkey, Brooking on building contracts: the law and practice relating to building and engineering agreements (Lexis Nexis Butterworths, 5th  ed, 2014).

Australian Law Reform Commission, Family Violence: a Legal Response: Summary Report (Australian Law Reform Commission, 2010)

Bodkin, Colin, Patent Law in Australia (Thomson Reuters, 2nd  ed, 2014)

Chafetz, Michael, Intellectual Disability: Criminal and Civil Forensic Issues, (Oxford University Press, 2015)

Manne, Geoffrey A and Joshua D Wright (eds), Competition Policy and Patent Law under Un-certainty Regulating Innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Sundahl, Mark D, ‘Legal status of spacecraft’ in Ram S. Jakhu and Paul Stephen Dempsey (eds), ‘Routledge Handbook of Space Law’ (Taylor & Francis, 2016) 42

Journal articles Rule 5

Format

Author(s), ‘Title’ (2012) Vol(Issue) Journal, Starting Page

Examples

3 Benjamen Franklen Gussen, 'On the Constitutionality of Hard State Border Closures in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2021) 35(1) Journal of Law and Health, 1, 43.
4 Gary Edmond et al, ‘Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images’ (2009) 20 Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 337.
5 Amanda Scardamaglia, ‘Reflecting on the Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth)’ (2022) 96 Australian Law Journal, 36, 40.

Scardamaglia, Amanda, ‘Reflecting on the Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth)’ (2022) 96 Australian Law Journal, 36

Reports and similar document Rule 7.1

Format

Author, Title (Document Type/Series no Document Number, Full Date) Pinpoint.

Examples

1 Atlassian Corporation, Atlassian Annual Report 2021 (Report, 2021) F-51.

9 Australian Law Reform Commission, Essentially Yours: The Protection of Human Genetic Information (Report No 96, March 2003) 520 (‘ALRC’).

Australian Bureau of Statistics Rule 7.1.5

Example

4Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia, 2021 (Catalogue No 4517.0, 9 December 2021).

Conference papers and similar documents Rule 7.2.4

Examples

5 Jacqueline Campbell, 'When Family Law Meets Bankruptcy' (Seminar Paper, Law Institute of Victoria, 17 February 2015).

17 Ian Mutton, 'Extra-Territoriality: A Case Study' (Conference Paper, International Trade Law Conference, 29 May 1997).

Newspapers Rule 7.11

Format

Author ‘Title’, Newspaper, (Place) Date, Pinpoint

Examples

7 Melissa Davey ‘Call to ban vaping for young Australians after review concludes it causes ‘acute lung injury’’ Guardian, (online, Thu 7 Apr 2022) https://www.theguardian.com/society/2022/apr/07/call-to-ban-vaping-for-young-australians-after-review-concludes-it-causes-acute-lung-injury.

89 Rose Healy, Letter to the editor, The Herald Sun (Melbourne, 10 June 2002) 16.

92 Jill Lepore, ‘The History Test’ (27 March 2017) The New Yorker 66.

123 ASX, 'ASX Selects Distributed Ledger Technology to Replace CHESS' (Media Release, 7 December 2017) 1.

Tingle, Laura, ‘Norway fund ponders dumping coal’, The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015

Course material

Cite lectures and other similar materials as speeches, Rule 7.3

Author, ‘Title’ (Speech, Institution/Forum, Full Date) Pinpoint

Example

27 Maya Borom, ‘Introduction to Judicial Reasoning’ (LAW20041 Lecture, Swinburne University Law School, 18 January 2022).

Audio visual resources Rule 7.14

Format

‘Episode Title’, Film Title/Series Title (Version Details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year) Pinpoint.

Examples

3 In My Blood it Runs (Sentient.Art.Film, 2020) 0:34:03.

22 'Vape Haze: The new addiction of vaping', Four Corners (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2022) 0:12:47-0:13:33 <https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/vape-haze:-the-new-addiction-of-vaping/13949378>.

72 ‘Working Remotely with Paul O’Halloran and Rachel Setti’, BenchTV (Benchmark Production, 2022).

Podcasts and radio segments Rule 7.14.4

Format

Broadcaster, ‘Title of segment’, Name of program, Full date (Name of speaker)

Examples

5 ABC Radio National, ‘Using evidence obtained in search warrants’, The Law Report, 3 February 2015, (Damian Carrick) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/surfers-paradise/6028122#transcript>.

9 'Michael Bradley Unpacks Australia’s Defamation Laws', Spin Cycle (Three Triple R, 9 June 2022) <https://www.rrr.org.au/on-demand/segments/spin-cycle-michael-bradley-unpacks-australias-defamation-laws>.

Internet Materials Rule 7.15

Author, ‘Document title’, Web Page Title (Document Type, Full Date) pinpoint <URL>.

Examples

22 Victorian State Government Department of Health, 'Medically supervised injecting room' Health.vic (26 September 2019), <https://www.health.vic.gov.au/aod-treatment-services/medically-supervised-injecting-room >.
23 Australian Academy of Science, ‘Academy warns of climate risk to Australia’ (Press Release, 16 February 2015) <https://www.science.org.au/news/academy-warns-climate-risks-australia>.

Social media posts Rule 7.16

Examples

5 Public Record Office Victoria, ‘Charles Troedel Archive: 19th century advertising’ (Youtube, 21 June 2022) <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GacFeiNQ2BI>.


17 chapteriiibestbits (Instagram, 21 July 2016 AEST) <https://www.instagram.com/p/BIICBevgk31/>.


22 @rachael_burgin (Rachael Burgin) (Twitter, May 25, 2021, 7:18am AEST) <https://twitter.com/rachael_burgin/status/1396938584322678785>.

Parliamentary papers

Examples

33 Amanda Biggs, ‘Medicare: A Quick Guide’ (Research Paper, Parliamentary Library, Parliament of Australia, 12 July 2016).

47 Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, Senate, 7 February 2017, 39 (George Brandis, Attorney-General).
48 Victoria, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Council, 14 December 2017, 6854.

52 Ambulance Victoria, Submission No 208 to Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into Drug Law Reform (24 March 2017).

55 Evidence to House Standing Committee on Tax and Revenue, Parliament of Australia, Canberra, 30 November 2016, 2 (Peter Strong).

Theses and dissertations Rule 7.2.5

Example

26 Mitchell Adams, ‘Empirical Studies of Non-Traditional Signs in Australian Trade Mark Law’ (PhD Thesis, Swinburne University, 2022).

Dictionaries and encyclopedias Rules 7.6 and 7.7

Examples

63 Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (online at 20 February 2018) ‘default judgment’ (def 1).
...
72 LexisNexis, Halsbury’s Laws of Australia, vol 15 (at 25 May 2009) 235 Insurance, ‘2 General Principles’ [235-270].

81 Westlaw AU, The Laws of Australia (online at 15 February 2018) 2 Administrative Law, '2.3 Access to Information' [2.3.10].

Treaties Rule 8

Format

Treaty Title, Parties’ Names, Date Opened for Signature or Date Signed, Treaty Series (Date of Entry into Force) Pinpoint.

Example

12 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, opened for signature 9 December 1948, 78 UNTS 277 (entered into force 12 January 1951) art 2.